Cat Number Four

Well, it’s official. Last night I called my parents and told them we had decided to adopt another cat. I figured I would get a lecture on how we have too many cats already, how I am allergic to cats (true!), etc. But Mom just laughed and said Sweetheart, we already KNEW you were going to adopt one of those kittens! They know me well. 😉 She surprised me even more by adding Why don’t you adopt TWO of the kittens, so it won’t be so traumatic for them to be separated from their mother? She wasn’t kidding, either. I wish we could take them all!

Now that the adoption is official, I can post a photo of our baby. Our kitten, 19 or 20 days oldThe kitten, the cream-coloured one in the photo (currently about the size of my boy Piccolo’s head!), will be joining our family once it is weaned, the first week or so of July. Perhaps with a sibling 😉 We don’t yet know if it’s a boy or a girl, but it doesn’t matter. We wish to continue the P name tradition (Puzzola, Piccolo and Priscilla), so if you can think of any good P-starting cat names, please let me know. If it’s a boy, I would like to call it Pronto, which is the Italian equivalent of hello? when answering the phone. It has other meanings, too: ready, prompt, quick, etc. After visiting Italy, a MM listserv friend called one of her cats Pronto, and I just loved the name! If it’s a girl well, we don’t have a name, yet. My brother in law suggested Paloma, which I like a lot. But we are still open to suggestions.

This is turning into a cat blog (!), but I AM also doing some serious research and will post about that soon!

Curcumin Keeps T-Cells Alive

Yesterday I came upon a recent study on curcumin and immune disorders. Published in the June 2007 edition of the “Journal of Biological Chemistry” (http://tinyurl.com/3yqzc6), it is titled Curcumin Prevents Tumor-induced T Cell Apoptosis through Stat-5a-mediated Bcl-2 Induction. Yes, I know, the second part of the title sounds nonsensical to non-scientific minds like mine. But when you read the abstract (and I am hoping to get my hands on the full text), it becomes clear that curcumin protects our T-cells. Indeed, this study shows that it restores T-cells from tumour-induced apoptosis: Administration of curcumin to tumor-bearing animals resulted in restoration of progenitor, effecter, and circulating T cells. In other words, curcumin can REVERSE the damage, or some of the damage at least, done to our T-cells by cancer. Now, isn’t that fantastic news? The study concludes: Thus, these results raise the possibility of inclusion of curcumin in successful therapeutic regimens against cancer. No kidding!

An article published in “Cancer Research” in January 2007 (http://tinyurl.com/2yng6z) also looks at curcumin and immunity. Concluding remarks: Thus, our results suggest that unlike many other anticancer agents, curcumin is not only devoid of immunosuppressive effects but also acts as immunorestorer in tumor-bearing host. I am all in favour of restoring my immune system!

Actually, this is not news to me, since a few months ago Prof. Aggarwal kindly sent me a study that he co-authored on this very topic (see my page on Curcumin and the Immune System). However, it is comforting to read a bit of updated research confirming curcumin’s strong pro-immune activities. This can only be good news for those of us who have compromised immune systems or autoimmune disorders.

Amusing Patient Reports and a Kitten

A MM listserv member posted some amusing patient reports (real ones!) yesterday, and inspired me to look up some more. Here are some of the ones she listed (thank you!):

The patient refused an autopsy.

Patient has left white blood cells at another hospital.

She has no rigors or shaking chills, but her husband states she was very hot in bed last night.

Patient has chest pain if she lies on her left side for over a year.

On the second day the knee was better, and on the third day it disappeared.

The patient is tearful and crying constantly. She also appears to be depressed.

The patient has been depressed since she began seeing me in 1993.

Discharge status: Alive but without permission.

Healthy appearing decrepit 69-year old male, mentally alert but forgetful.

Patient had waffles for breakfast and anorexia for lunch.

She is numb from her toes down.

In Richard Lederer’s “Fractured English” and “More Anguished English,” I found a few more gems:

She is quite hard of hearing. In fact, she can’t hear at all in the left eye.

Sinuses run in the family.Carmen's kitten

He was eating his tray so I didn’t examine him.

He has an allergy to asthma.

The patient is a three-year-old who has been vomiting off and on for twelve years.

My personal favourite: the patient was bitten by a bat as he walked down the street on his thumb. Hehe.

This morning I went to visit my neighbours, who have three newborn kittens and three 1.5 month-old kittens (two different mothers, one of whom is my boy Piccolo’s mother). This is the cutest photo I took (of one of the 1.5 month-old kittens). Is cat number four on the way? 😉 My neighbours, of course, are urging me to take all their kittens! (They already have eight cats, two dogs and two turtles…)

Have a great weekend, everyone!

Queen Puzzola

Puzzola showed up on our doorstep in September of 2001, almost as soon as we had moved into our home on the outskirts of Florence. She was skin and bones. Mostly bones. She was probably four or five months old at the time. Our cat-loving neighbours and I started feeding this affectionate little creature, who was clearly not a stray but had lived the first few months of her life with a family that had then abandoned her in our neighbourhood. Every time we went outside, there she was, our faithful little Puzzola, ready for some food, but also for love and caresses. Whenever we opened the front door, she would zoom inside, and we would have to rush after her and gently put her back outside. Until one day. She came inside and has stayed with us ever since. See, at the time we didn’t want another cat. We already had a cat, my Canadian cat, Keshé, whom I had gotten at a cat shelter in Toronto (unfortunately, she died of renal failure about six months after she arrived from the States, where she had been living with my parents until we got more settled here). But Puzzola was very insistent, and we had fallen in love with her, so it was just a matter of time.

Her name has a couple of meanings in Italian. In the beginning, the “aroma” emanating from her droppings in the litter box would send us scampering for shelter. I am not kidding. So the first meaning is: skunk (I happen to think skunks are gorgeous creatures, by the way). Puzzola is also the common Italian name for “marigold.” And our green-eyed Puzzola is most certainly a lovely flower, as well as the sweetest cat I have ever had.

One of the funniest and most remarkable things she does is to sit on our larPuzzola pointing out the benefits of pure resveratrolge farmhouse dining room table while we eat dinner. In the beginning, it was a bit disconcerting. Now we are used to it. As soon as I finish eating and push away my plate, I raise my hand, and that is her signal. She gets up, walks across the table and climbs into my lap, purring and kneading. But the amazing thing is, she won’t budge from her spot in the corner of the table until I let her know it’s okay. If Piccolo or Priscilla get on the table mamma mia, forget it. They MAY begin by sitting down at the end of the table, looking deceptively innocent, but they will begin inching closer and closer to our plates, trying to get their silly noses in our food. So they are not really allowed on the table. (Well ) [In this photo, by the way, Puzzola is pointing out the benefits of pure resveratrol 😉 ]

Even though Puzzola gets into my lap after dinner, she is definitely my husband’s cat. She worships him (perfectly understandable). Almost every evening, especially if he is late, she waits by the front door, listening. She gets very agitated when she hears his car approaching, starts meowing and stretching upwards, as though wanting to open the door for him. She doesn’t sleep with us. Our bed is too crowded for her, with the two youngest cats on it. She also doesn’t really play. I don’t think Puzzola played much as a kitten, unlike the other two. She had to scavenge for a living until she chose us as adoptive parents. So she just sits and watches Piccolo and Priscilla roll about on the floor. If they try to involve her in their fun, she runs up to the attic. She has dignity. She is our queen.

Mint Leaf Starves Cancer to Death!

How’s that for a catchy headline? 😉 Except in THIS case, the headline actually comes closer to the truth than those ridiculous headlines screeching about multivitamins causing prostate cancer (see my recent post and page on that study).

Without Dr. Benelli’s books (see my Natural COX-2 inhibitors post), I might not have discovered the anti-MM effects of baicalein, one of the main compounds found in Scutellaria baicalensis, also known as Chinese skullcap. In spite of its scary-sounding name, which derives from the peculiar shape of its seed heads, this plant is actually a very friendly member of the mint family (Laminaceae). This online photo shows off its very pretty flowers (in fact, I am thinking of getting one for my back yard): http://tinyurl.com/29cp3f Its yellow root has been (and IS) used in traditional Chinese medicine for the past 2000 years to treat various ailments ranging from irritability (!) to hepatitis. Its healing properties are too many to be listed here, but can be found on many websites. I would just like to mention that it has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, free-radical-scavenging €”okay, enough, enough, this is turning into a laundry list! €”properties. And more!

Baicalein and MM. Drum roll, please! A 2005 study published in Blood is titled: Baicalein, a component of Scutellaria radix from Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT), leads to suppression of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in human myeloma cells (http://tinyurl.com/2jnlej) Suppression of proliferation? Induction of apoptosis in MM cells? Hurray! Scutellaria radix is the dried root of Scutellaria baicalensis (baicalensis, by the way, derives from Lake Baikal, in Siberia, where the plant was first discovered), which is an ingredient in HLJDT, a traditional Chinese medicine. It was found to have anticancer, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties. Researchers tested its three main components–baicalein, baicalin, and wogonin–separately, and concluded that baicalein had the strongest anti-MM effects. In particular, it inhibited the proliferation of myeloma cell lines and the survival of primary myeloma cells, especially MPC-1- immature myeloma cells, and induced apoptosis in myeloma cell lines via a mitochondria-mediated pathway by reducing mitochondrial membrane potential and activating caspase-9 and caspase-3. Researchers also found that the antiproliferative effect of baicalein is not specific to myeloma cells, since it has also been examined for a human myeloid cell line, HL-60. I have already mentioned these HL-60 cells (see the link to the 2007 University of Pittsburgh study in yesterday’s post). Baicalein also inhibits COX-2, which may occur via the down-regulation of NF-kB. The good news continues: baicalein and Scutellaria radix also have an effect on the infamous IL-6. Yahoo!

Furthermore, baicalein is a potent inhibitor for -glucosidase, which catalyzes the final step in the digestion of carbohydrates. Based on these observations, we cannot exclude the possibility that the baicalein-induced inhibition of myeloma cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis result from not only the down-regulation of NF-kB activity but also various other actions of baicalein. So baicalein will kill my MM cells using different mechanisms AND reduce the impact of my dinner pasta carbs on my blood sugar at the same time. Now, that’s what I call a find! 😉 The study concludes: The results presented here clearly show that baicalein (or Scutellaria radix) can directly inhibit the proliferation of myeloma cells and present enough evidence for clinical trials to treat multiple myeloma. Indeed! Unfortunately, I was unable to find any clinical trials listed for Scutellaria, except for a Phase I/II trial (http://tinyurl.com/2oyohu) that is testing Scutellaria barbata D. Don, or barbed skullcap (a relative of our Scutellaria baicalensis), for advanced metastatic breast cancer. See this BBC News report: http://tinyurl.com/2vbf9u I mention this report mainly because I loved (and borrowed, thank you!) the headline: Mint leaf starves cancer to death ! 😉

Other studies. A 2003 study (http://tinyurl.com/2zt9bt) examines the effect of baicalein on the central nervous system, concluding that it has neuroprotective effects. And Scutellaria baicalensis was tested in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), which is resistant to chemotherapy, in vitro and in vivo (http://tinyurl.com/262awe). The study concludes that Scutellaria baicalensis appears to have many anti-cancer mechanisms. If you are squeamish, do not click on this link, which posts the photo of a mouse with huge tumours. I was horrified. I know, I know. Also, here is a prostate cancer and baicalein study: http://tinyurl.com/yvggld I will stop here.

Concluding remarks on Scutellaria and MM. An April 2007 study (http://tinyurl.com/3xcwjw) confirms that Scutellaria baicalensis and baicalein (in particular) have anti-proliferative and apoptotic activity against acute lymphocytic leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma cell lines. Another recently published study (http://tinyurl.com/2useyn) shows that baicalein combined with Dexamethasone suppress the growth of MM cells. Researchers report that this combination also reduced the expression of IL-6, as we have seen. The study states that the cooperative growth suppression of Dex and baicalein in myeloma cells might be useful for myeloma therapy. Combinatory treatment with both may overcome the Dex resistance and the baicalein resistance in primary myeloma cells, as well as myeloma cell lines. Good news for those MMers undergoing chemotherapy.

Where are those baicalein-MM clinical trials???

Anthocyanin Pigments and Cancer

“When you get multiple antioxidants
it’s like putting a battery in the immune system.”
Dr. Arnold Leonard
University of Minnesota

(from: http://tinyurl.com/ypxgj5)

Last week, looking up studies on ellagic acid and cancer, an endless task! (just to give an idea: PubMed has more than 700 entries for ellagic acid, and 129 for ellagic acid and cancer !), I stumbled upon anthocyanins (try to pronounce that!), which are flavonoids whose main purpose is to give colour to most flowers and fruit. According to Wikipedia, they are water-soluble vacuolar flavonoid pigments that appear red to blue, according to pH. They are synthesized by organisms of the plant kingdom and bacteria, and have been observed to occur in all tissues of higher plants, providing color in leaves, stems, roots, flowers, and fruits.

These pigments are mostly found in blackberries, blueberries, strawberries, elderberries, grapes and plums, as reported by The Columbus Dispatch: http://tinyurl.com/ypxgj5 The darker the fruit, the more anthocyanins it has. In plants, anthocyanins act as a sunscreen, absorbing high-frequency blue-green light. As antioxidants, they scavenge free radicals that form in plant tissue through ultraviolet radiation. Fascinating. And there is more: Anthocyanins appear to work by inhibiting compounds that weaken the immune system and stimulate tissue inflammation. They also seek out and destroy harmful free-radical molecules that circulate in the body, attack cells and cause aging, heart disease and cancer. Exactly how they do this, however, remains a mystery. University of Pittsburgh research has shown that a form of anthocyanin called cyanidin-3-rutinoside is a strong antioxidant and is similar to compounds called polyphenols, which are found in green tea. And it causes cancer cells to break down. The Pittsburgh scientists found that cyanidin-3-rutinoside caused potent oxidants called peroxides to accumulate and kill leukemia cells. Anthocyanins appear particularly useful for people who have had cancer surgery and are at risk of recurrence. Now how about that?

The 2007 study cited in the Columbus Dispatch can be read at: http://tinyurl.com/yozmkd Researchers added the above-mentioned cyanidin-3-rutinoside to several leukaemia and lymphoma cell lines, and found that it induced apoptosis in the malignant cells without affecting normal cells. Aha! The abstract concludes: These results indicate that cyanidin-3-rutinoside has the potential to be used in leukemia therapy with the advantages of being widely available and selective against tumors.

A 2004 study (http://tinyurl.com/25ewmn) shows that the anti-cancer (apoptotic!) and anti-inflammatory properties of anthocyanidins work at a molecular level. They are chemopreventive based on the: (i) inhibition of anthocyanidins in cell transformation through targeting mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and activator protein 1 (AP-1) factor; (ii) suppression of anthocyanidins in inflammation and carcinogenesis through targeting nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) gene; (iii) apoptotic induction of cancer cells by anthocyanidins through reactive oxygen species (ROS) / c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK)-mediated caspase activation. Now, let me see. COX-2, NF-kB, ROS, kinases haven’t I heard those mentioned somewhere? 😉

For an excellent overview of anthocyanins, see http://tinyurl.com/ywckdk. Anthocyanin isolates and anthocyanin-rich mixtures of bioflavonoids may provide protection from DNA cleavage, estrogenic activity (altering development of hormone-dependent disease symptoms), enzyme inhibition, boosting production of cytokines (thus regulating immune responses), anti-inflammatory activity, lipid peroxidation, decreasing capillary permeability and fragility, and membrane strengthening. This is a very interesting comprehensive study, and I cannot possibly summarize it properly. Among other things, it examines how anthocyanins protect from cardiovascular disease and pancreatic disorders, can perhaps help prevent diabetes and obesity, enhance memory and modulate cognitive and motor function, and defend our lungs against pleurisy and inflammation in general. Wow! This fascinating study also discusses bioavailability issues, which are part of the anthocyanin enigma, i.e., what happens after we swallow these pigments.

Another 2004 study (http://tinyurl.com/2aa8x4) informs us that anthocyanins have been part of the human diet for centuries, and have been used by Native Americans, Europeans and Chinese to treat hypertension, pyrexia, liver disorders, dysentery and diarrhoea, urinary problems including kidney stones and urinary tract infections, and the common cold. Recent studies have shown, among other things, that they protect against liver injuries, lower blood pressure, improve eyesight, have strong anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities, and suppress the proliferation of human cancer cells. This study also raises a few pertinent questions. For instance, how do anthocyanins provide all these health benefits: on their own, or by interacting with other phenolic compounds? What happens to anthocyanin molecules after ingestion? Reports on bioavailability of anthocyanins indicate that less than 1% of consumed anthocyanins is detectable in human plasma and urine. Okay, so clearly more studies are needed. But the potential is there. In the meantime, I am going outside to munch on some colourful flowers and fruits. 😉

A few studies: Leukaemia cells and a Hibiscus anthocyanin: http://tinyurl.com/2uhfw2; Lung cancer and anthocyanins: http://tinyurl.com/3bmlkl; Colon cancer prevention and anthocyanins: http://tinyurl.com/2eld4c; see also http://tinyurl.com/2xl3go; Cranberries and cancer; interesting study that examines colon, oral and prostate cancer cell lines: http://tinyurl.com/283k7k; Retinal disorders and anthocyanins (bilberry extract): http://tinyurl.com/279gu2; Heart disease and anthocyanins (elderberry extract): http://tinyurl.com/2xjs4d

Prostate Cancer and Multivitamin Study

Last week, on one of the MM listservs, a rather heated discussion started from a study on prostate cancer and multivitamins recently published by the National Cancer Institute. Prostate cancer patients who take multivitamins, a list member wrote, are more likely to have more virulent cancers than those who do not. WHAT??? I couldn’t believe my eyes, so I did a bit of sleuthing. I discovered that Internet was plastered with scary news headlines, such as Multivitamins linked to prostate cancer, Multivitamin prostate warning, and even Vitamins may hike deadly prostate cancer risk, and Vitamins Tied to Prostate Cancer. Multivitamins had suddenly become Vitamins. Helloooo??? I immediately looked up the full study: http://tinyurl.com/2zmbxd.

According to the study, a very high intake of multivitamins increased the risk of a more rapid progression of this cancer in the advanced or fatal stages, BUT that same intake was not found to be harmful in the early stages or indeed in the prevention of prostate cancer. Therefore, multivitamins do NOT cause prostate cancer. A key point. One of many. Keep in mind that very high intake apparently meant taking MORE than seven multivitamins a week. Now, that is A LOT of vitamins. A few questions that popped into my mind were: what did these patients eat? Why were they supplementing with so many multivitamins? What about other factors? The study provides rather wishy-washy information on diet, limited to red meat, fish, alcohol and tomatoes. There are so many things involved in cancer that I am amazed that anybody reading this study and, indeed, the researchers themselves, could have come to any conclusions whatsoever.

The researchers report that, while heavy multivitamin users who also took an extra selenium, folate or vitamin E supplement had a statistically significant increased risk of localized prostate cancer, there was no such increased risk for those who took selenium, folate or vitamin E as individual supplements. This small but interesting fact is rather buried in the study, but I think it is worth mentioning. Multivitamins no, individual supplements yes.

Even more importantly, Heavy multivitamin use versus never use was associated with an increased risk of both advanced prostate cancer [ ] and fatal prostate cancer [ ] among men with a positive family history of prostate cancer, whereas no association was apparent among those without a family history. A few paragraphs later: confounding associations between individual agents [read: vitamins] that we were unable to assess and the risk of prostate cancer among men with a positive family history in our study were possible. Confounding is right.

Another tasty morsel: In our study, prostate cancer PSA screening was most frequent among heavy users of multivitamins, consistent with survey data [ ] showing men who used supplements were more likely to have PSA examinations than nonusers. Thus, it is possible that the positive association with heavy use of multivitamins along with certain supplements was spurious because more intensive screening led to increased diagnosis of localized prostate cancer in groups that used the supplements. Hmmm.so, unless my English fails me (which would not surprise me, since I have lived in Italy more than half my life ), vitamin-takers are more likely to get screened for prostate cancer. I think the implications are obvious. Spurious, indeed!

But the best is yet to come: excessive intake of certain individual micronutrients that are used in combination with multivitamins may be the underlying factor that is related to risk and not the multivitamins themselves. What, what, WHAT?! So multivitamins MAY not be the culprits, after all? Then what is the point of this study? What were those news headlines shouting about?

The abstract concludes: These results suggest that regular multivitamin use is not associated with the risk of early or localized prostate cancer. The possibility that men taking high levels of multivitamins along with other supplements have increased risk of advanced and fatal prostate cancers is of concern and merits further evaluation. Suggest, possibility ? Hardly a firm denunciation of multivitamins.

My wrap-up: the multivitamin/prostate cancer study is inconclusive, and the hype surrounding it is dangerous. I would not be surprised to learn that many cancer patients are now too afraid to take any vitamins at all. However, if I took vitamins (I do not, actually, not on a regular basis), this study would not convince me to stop taking them. Not in the least. Oh, and did I mention that the assessment of multivitamin use was based on a “self-administered, mailed food-frequency baseline questionnaire”? No comment. My advice: when you read a catchy headline similar to the above-mentioned ones, disregard it and go read the source for yourself.

Weekend in the Mountains and a Humourous Story

Later today my husband and I are leaving for my in-laws’ holiday home in Gaggio Montano, a small town located in the Apennine mountains. My in-laws are from the South, an area near Naples, but moved to Florence after they were married. And even though my husband was born in Florence, he has very strong ties to his huge extended Southern family. And now, so do I. Southern Italians are wonderful, affectionate and generous people. Anyway, every spring we have a huge family weekend gathering at Gaggio Montano, which means the following: lots of laughter, lots of food and wine, lots of card games and lots and lots of noise. Lots! Total chaos. A typical Southern Italian feast €”an experience not to be missed (if possible)!

The Southern relatives will be arriving at various times today and tomorrow, bringing a ton of food with them: an entire lamb (horror!!! I won’t even look at it, let alone eat any ), a truckload of delicious mozzarella di bufala, or buffalo mozzarella (nothing at all like the horrible plastic-tasting stuff I have had in the States), fantastic wine (not just my beloved Tuscan Chianti, but also Aglianico and Taurasi from the region of Campania), various types of cheeses and salami you name it, they are bringing it. One big item on the menu will be porchetta, or pork roast. I won’t touch that, either!, since there will be plenty of wonderful vegetables to eat, too. The serious partying begins tonight, and goes on all day tomorrow. Fun! I won’t have Internet access until we get back on Sunday. So, have a great weekend! 🙂

A humourous story, sent to me by a good listserv friend (thanks!!!).

Southern Grandma

Lawyers should never ask a Southern grandma a question if they aren’t prepared for the answer. In a trial, a Southern small-town prosecuting attorney called his first witness, a grandmotherly, elderly woman to the stand. He approached her and asked, “Mrs. Jones, do you know me?” She responded, “Why, yes, I do know you, Mr. Williams, I’ve known you since you were a young boy, and frankly, you’ve been a big disappointment to me. You lie, you cheat on your wife, and you manipulate people and talk about them behind their backs. You think you’re a big shot when you haven’t the brains to realize you never will amount to anything more than a two-bit paper pusher. Yes, I know you.” The lawyer was stunned!

Not knowing what else to do, he pointed across the room and asked, “Mrs. Jones, do you know the defence attorney?” She again replied, “Why, yes, I do. I’ve known Mr. Bradley since he was a youngster, too. He’s lazy, bigoted, and he has a drinking problem. He can’t build a normal relationship with anyone, and his law practice is one of the worst in the entire state. Not to mention he cheated on his wife with three different women. One of them was your wife. Yes, I know him.” The defence attorney almost died.

The judge asked both counselors to approach the bench, and in a very quiet voice, said, “If either of you idiots asks her if she knows me, I’ll throw you in jail for contempt.”

Natural COX-2 inhibitors

I found heaps of very useful information in Dr. Roberto Benelli (an Italian urologist)’s books on prostate cancer and curcumin. To be honest, it’s hard to decide where to begin. Today’s chosen topic: natural COX-2 inhibitors. I have written a bit about this enzyme, COX-2, which is an independent signal of a poor outcome in MM (see my Ellagic Acid Part II post). For comparison purposes, I added a list of natural NF-kB inhibitors, too. I copied both lists from Dr. Benelli’s book titled L’Inibizione delle Vie di Segnale Cellulare: il €˜Curcumin,’ published in 2006. (Co-author: Marco Gavazzi.)

Four compounds are on both lists–curcumin, EGCG, quercetin and resveratrol–which is good to know. My most interesting new discovery: holy basil (Ocimum sanctum), is a COX-2 inhibitor. Needless to say, I am adding holy basil to my future research list. Here are the lists:

Natural COX-2 inhibitors: holy basil, berberine , curcumin, EGCG, ginger, common hop, fish oil, oregano, quercetin, resveratrol, rosemary, Chinese skullcap, vitamins A, E

Natural NF-kB inhibitors: allicin, curcumin, EGCG, genistein, gingko biloba, melatonin, quercetin, resveratrol, silymarin, sulphoraphane, vitamins A, C, E

I looked up the items I didn’t recognize on Wikipedia: berberine is a plant alkaloid present in herbs such as berberis (barberry) and goldenseal; Chinese skullcap is also know as Scutellaria baicalensis, which is on my list of substances to be studied because, guess what?, one of its components has anti-MM effects (antiproliferative and apoptotic effects) in vitro. Yippee. I will post that information soon. Let’s see, what else? Silymarin is extracted from milk thistle, and sulphorophane is a well-known anti-cancer compound found in cruciferous vegetables €”broccoli, etc. Allicin, of course, is extracted from garlic, and genistein from soy.

I would like to take this opportunity to thank Dr. Benelli publicly for his kindness in sending me these books. La ringrazio davvero tanto!